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American Tribal Gaming

The 1934 Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934 (IRA) established policies to reduce federal involvement in Indian affairs and to promote self-government and economic independence for all Native Americans, a large part of which includes the restoration, conservation and development of Indian lands. The right to self-government and land possession set the foundation for Indian tribes to capitalize on the opportunity to develop gaming enterprises within their boundaries.

However, it was not until the 1980s, following several court rulings clarifying tribal sovereignty, that bingo parlors and card clubs began to emerge. With the growth of a gaming industry, and under the IRA, tribes could apply for land to be taken into trust, and therefore expand their territories. For tribes seeking to open casinos, the increase in territory meant an increased opportunity for economic development.

The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) was signed into law on 17 October 1988, in response to the rapid growth in gaming interests. It established the jurisdictional framework, including the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), which presently governs Indian gaming, which ranges from bingo parlors to casinos across 31 states.

In 2009, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that the term "now under federal jurisdiction" in regard to land taken into trust applied only to tribes that were federally recognized up until 1934, when the IRA was enacted. Therefore, the government is prohibited from taking land into trust for any tribe that gained federal recognition after 1934.

The decision was delivered in the case of Donald L. Carcieri, Governor of Rhode Island v. Ken L. Salazar, Secretary of the Interior, et al. The Narragansett tribe of Rhode Island purchased a 31-acre parcel of land in 1991 and petitioned to have it taken into trust. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) approved the petition in 1998, and the state appealed. Following a series of rulings in favor of the federal government, the state appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which made its decision on 27 February 2009.

In February 2007, the DOI proposed a new rule to restrict off-reservation development of casinos. By January 2008, the Assistant Secretary - Indian Affairs Carl Artman published a memorandum that stipulated casinos should be located within a "commutable distance" (40 miles) of a reservation, and following its release, a number of land-to-trust applications were instantly rejected.

In June 2011 under a new administration, Assistant Secretary - Indian Affairs Larry Echo Hawk rescinded the 2008 guidelines regarding the off-reservation development of casinos. Deeming the guidelines unnecessary and established without tribal consultation, Echo Hawk affirmed that adherence to existing laws, with transparency, is sufficient in processing off-reservation gaming applications.

The IGRA establishes three classes of games, with a different regulatory scheme for each.

Class I gaming is defined as traditional Indian gaming and social gaming for minimal prizes. Class II gaming is defined as the game of chance commonly known as bingo (whether or not electronic, computer or other technological aids are used) and, if played in the same location as the bingo, pull-tabs, punchboards, tip jars, instant bingo and other games similar to bingo. Class II gaming also includes non-banked card games. Class III gaming is extremely broad and includes all forms of gaming that are neither Class I nor Class II. Games commonly played at casinos, such as slot machines, blackjack, craps and roulette, are in the Class III category.

Following an attempt by an Alaskan tribe to legitimize one-touch bingo machines as Class II machines, NIGC chairman Phil Hogen announced in April 2008 his intent to reclassify electronic bingo. One-touch bingo machines only require players to press a button once to wager and play. The reclassification would mean the one-touch machines would be regulated like Las Vegas-style slot machines, requiring tribes to form a compact with the State.

On 5 June 2010, Hogen denied allowance of one-touch bingo machines for Class II gaming tribes, and determined those machines to be Class III electronic games of chance.

In July 2013, the NIGC reversed its position on one-touch bingo machines and classified them as Class II machines.

Since the passage of IGRA in 1988, tribal gaming has grown from a $121 million segment of the U.S. gaming industry, consisting of small bingo halls and gaming facilities, to a more than $32 billion segment in 28 states in 2017.

American Tribal Gaming Properties

12 Tribes Resort Casino
4 Bears Casino & Lodge
7 Cedars Casino
7 Clans First Council Casino Hotel
7 Clans Gasino Chilocco
7 Clans Gasino Red Rock
7 Clans Paradise Casino
7 Clans Perry Casino
789 Smoke Shop and Casino
7th Street Casino
Ada Gaming Center
Agate Pull Tabs
Agua Caliente Casino Cathedral City
Agua Caliente Casino Palm Springs
Agua Caliente Resort Casino Spa Rancho Mirage
Akwesasne Mohawk Casino Resort
American Legion Post 290
American Legion Post 31
Angel of the Winds Casino Resort
Apache Casino Hotel
Apache Gold Casino & Resort
Apache Nugget Travel Center and Casino
Apache Sky Casino
Augustine Casino
Avi Resort & Casino
B&S Laundry
Bad River Lodge & Casino
Bannock Peak Casino
Barona Resort & Casino
Bay Mills Resort & Casino
Bear River Casino Resort
Bear River Pump and Play
Bear's Sports Bar
Benewah Automotive Center
Benewah Market Family Foods
Berry's Bar
BJ's Bingo & Gaming
Black Bear Casino Resort
Black Gold Casino
Black Mesa Casino
Black Mesa Travel Center
Black Oak Casino Resort
Blackbird Bend Casino
Blue Lake Casino & Hotel
BlueWater Resort & Casino
Bok Homa Casino
Bone's 113
Border Casino
Bucky's Casino
Buffalo Run Casino & Resort
Buffalo Thunder Resort & Casino
Cache Creek Casino Resort
Cahuilla Casino Hotel
Callaway Liquors
Canyon Lanes at Morongo
Casino Apache
Casino Arizona
Casino Del Sol
Casino Morongo
Casino of the Sun
Casino Oklahoma
Casino Pauma
Casino White Cloud
Cedar Crest Resort
Cedar Lakes Casino Hotel
Charging Horse Casino & Bingo
Cher-Ae Heights Casino
Cherokee Casino & Hotel Roland
Cherokee Casino & Hotel West Siloam Springs
Cherokee Casino Fort Gibson
Cherokee Casino Grove
Cherokee Casino Ramona
Cherokee Casino Sallisaw
Cherokee Casino South Coffeyville
Cherokee Smoke Shop - Tulsa
Cherokee Smoke Shop - West Siloam Springs
Cherokee Tahlequah Casino
Cherokee Travel Plaza & Gaming Parlor
Cherokee Tribal Bingo
Chewelah Casino
Chickasaw Travel Stop - Ada West
Chickasaw Travel Stop - Davis East
Chickasaw Travel Stop - Thackerville
Chicken Ranch Casino
Chinook Winds Casino Resort
Chisholm Trail Casino
Choctaw Casino - Broken Bow
Choctaw Casino - Idabel
Choctaw Casino - McAlester
Choctaw Casino - Stringtown
Choctaw Casino Resort - Durant
Choctaw Casino Resort - Grant
Choctaw Casino Resort - Pocola
Choctaw Travel Plaza Antlers
Choctaw Travel Plaza Atoka
Choctaw Travel Plaza Broken Bow
Choctaw Travel Plaza Durant East
Choctaw Travel Plaza Durant West
Choctaw Travel Plaza Grant
Choctaw Travel Plaza Heavener
Choctaw Travel Plaza Hugo
Choctaw Travel Plaza Idabel
Choctaw Travel Plaza McAlester
Choctaw Travel Plaza Pocola
Choctaw Travel Plaza Poteau
Choctaw Travel Plaza Stigler
Choctaw Travel Plaza Stringtown
Choctaw Travel Plaza Wilburton
Chukchansi Gold Resort & Casino
Chumash Casino Resort
Cimarron Bend Casino
Cimarron Casino
Cities of Gold Casino & Hotel
Clearwater River Casino & Lodge
Cliff Castle Casino Hotel
Cocopah Casino & Resort
Coeur d'Alene Casino Resort Hotel
Colusa Casino Resort
Comanche Nation Casino
Comanche Nation Travel Plaza
Comanche Red River Hotel Casino
Comanche Spur Casino
Comanche Star Casino
Coulee Dam Casino
Coushatta Casino Resort
Coyote Valley Casino
Coyote Valley One Stop Shop
Creek Nation Casino Bristow
Creek Nation Casino Checotah
Creek Nation Casino Duck Creek
Creek Nation Casino Eufaula
Creek Nation Casino Holdenville
Creek Nation Casino Muscogee
Creek Nation Casino Okemah
Creek Nation Travel Plaza - Muscogee
Creek Nation Travel Plaza - Okmulgee
Crosswinds Casino
Cypress Bayou Casino Hotel
Dakota Connection Casino
Dakota Magic Casino & Hotel
Dakota Sioux Casino & Hotel
Dancing Eagle Casino
Del Sol Marketplace
Desert Diamond Casinos & Entertainment - Sahuarita
Desert Diamond Casinos & Entertainment - Tucson
Desert Diamond Casinos & Entertainment - West Valley
Desert Diamond Casinos & Entertainment - Why
Desert Rose Casino
Diamond Mountain Casino Hotel & Brewery
Downstream Casino Resort
Eagle Mountain Casino
East Wind Casino
Elbow Lake Store
Elk Valley Casino
Elwha River Casino
Emerald Queen Casino I-5
Emerald Queen Hotel & Casino
Fancy Dance Casino
Fantasy Springs Resort Casino
Feather Falls Casino & Lodge
Fire Rock Casino
FireKeepers Casino Hotel
FireLake Casino
FireLake Golf Course
First American Mart
Flowing Water Navajo Casino
Fond-du-Luth Casino
Fort Belknap Casino
Fort Randall Casino Hotel
Fortune Bay Resort Casino
Four Winds Dowagiac
Four Winds Hartford
Four Winds New Buffalo
Four Winds South Bend
Foxwoods Resort Casino
Garcia River Casino
Gila River Hotels & Casinos - Lone Butte
Gila River Hotels & Casinos - Vee Quiva
Gila River Hotels & Casinos - Wild Horse Pass
Git-N-Go
Glacier Peaks Hotel
Glacier Peaks Hotel & Casino
Gold Country Casino Resort
Gold Mountain Casino
Gold River Casino
Golden Acorn Casino & Travel Center
Golden Buffalo Casino
Golden Eagle Bingo
Golden Eagle Casino
Golden Eagle Casino
Golden Mesa Casino
Golden Moon Hotel & Casino
Golden Pony Casino
Goldsby Gaming Center
Grand Casino Hinckley
Grand Casino Hotel & Resort
Grand Casino Mille Lacs
Grand Lake Casino
Grand Portage Lodge & Casino
Grand River Casino & Resort
Grand Travel Plaza
Grand Treasure Casino
Graton Resort & Casino
Gray Wolf Peak Casino
Grindstone Creek Casino
Gun Lake Casino
Hard Rock Hotel & Casino - Sacramento at Fire Mountain
Hard Rock Hotel & Casino - Tulsa
Harrah's Ak-Chin Hotel and Casino
Harrah's Cherokee Casino Resort
Harrah's Cherokee Valley River Casino & Hotel
Harrah's Northern California
Harrah's Resort Southern California
Havasu Landing Resort & Casino
Hidden Oaks Casino
High Winds Casino
Hilltop Supper Club
Ho-Chunk Gaming Black River Falls
Ho-Chunk Gaming Madison
Ho-Chunk Gaming Nekoosa
Ho-Chunk Gaming Tomah
Ho-Chunk Gaming Wisconsin Dells
Ho-Chunk Gaming Wittenberg
Hon-Dah Resort Casino & Conference Center
Ice Cracking Lodge
ilani Casino Resort
Indian Head Casino
Indigo Sky Casino & Resort
Inn of the Mountain Gods Resort & Casino
Ioway Casino
Ioway Travel Plaza
Iron Horse Bar & Casino
Island Resort & Casino
Isleta Resort & Casino
ITO Bingo
It'se Ye-Ye Casino
Jackpot Junction Casino Hotel
Jackson Rancheria Casino Resort
Jake's Casino
Jamul Casino
Jena Choctaw Pines Casino
Jet Stream Casino
Kalispel Casino
KC Hall Bingo
KCA Bingo
Kewadin Casino Christmas
Kewadin Casino Hessel
Kewadin Casino Manistique
Kewadin Casino Sault Ste. Marie
Kewadin Casino St. Ignace
Kickapoo Casino Harrah
Kickapoo Casino Shawnee
Kickapoo Lucky Eagle Casino Hotel
Kickapoo Travel Plaza
Kings Club Casino
Kiowa Casino - Carnegie
Kiowa Casino - Verden
Kiowa Casino & Hotel
Kla-Mo-Ya Casino
Konocti Vista Casino Resort, Marina & RV Park
Kootenai River Inn Casino & Spa
KwaTaqNuk Resort & Casino
La Dots Lounge
La Jolla Trading Post & Casino
Lake of the Torches Bingo
Lake of the Torches Resort Casino
Lakeside Entertainment
Last Chance Casino and Bingo
Lean To Tavern
Leelanau Sands Casino & Lodge
Legendary Waters Resort & Casino
Legends Casino Hotel
Little Creek Casino Resort
Little River Casino Resort
Little Six Casino
Little Wind Casino
Lode Star Casino & Hotel
Lucky 7 Casino & Hotel
Lucky 7 Fuel Mart
Lucky 77 Casino
Lucky Bear Casino
Lucky Dog Casino
Lucky Eagle Casino & Hotel
Lucky Star Casino - Canton
Lucky Star Casino - Clinton
Lucky Star Casino - Concho
Lucky Star Casino - Concho Travel Center
Lucky Star Casino - Hammon
Lucky Star Casino - Watonga
Lucky Turtle Casino
M & W Foods
M & W Service Center
Madill Gaming Center
Mazatzal Hotel & Casino
Megastar Casino
Menominee Casino Resort
Meskwaki Bingo Casino Hotel
MIC Gaming Hall
Miccosukee Resort & Gaming Center
Miko's Gaming
Mill Bay Casino
Moapa Travel Plaza
Moapa Tribal Store
Mohegan Sun
Mole Lake Casino Lodge & Conference Center
Mono Wind Casino
Morongo Casino Resort & Spa
Morongo Travel Center
Muckleshoot Bingo
Muckleshoot Casino
Mystic Lake Casino Hotel
Naskila Gaming
Native Lights Casino
Native Star Casino
Newcastle Casino
Newcastle Travel Gaming
Nez Perce Express II
Nisqually Red Wind Casino
Nooksack Northwood Casino
North Star Mohican Casino Resort
Northern Edge Casino
Northern Lights Casino Hotel
Northern Quest Resort & Casino
Northern Waters Casino Resort
Northern Winz Hotel & Casino
Northern Winz II Casino
NVB Pull Tabs
Odawa Casino Mackinaw
Odawa Casino Resort
Ogema Municipal Liquor Store
Ohiya Casino & Resort
Ohkay Hotel Casino
Ojibwa Casino - Baraga
Ojibwa Casino - Marquette
One Fire Casino
Oneida Casino - IMAC
Oneida Casino - Main Airport
Oneida Casino - One-Stop Packerland
Oneida Casino - Travel Center
Oneida Casino - West Mason
Osage Casino - Bartlesville
Osage Casino - Hominy
Osage Casino - Pawhuska
Osage Casino - Sand Springs
Osage Casino Hotel - Ponca City
Osage Casino Hotel - Skiatook
Osage Casino Hotel - Tulsa
Outpost Casino
Pala Casino Spa and Resort
Palace West Casino
Pappy's Cafe and Pizzeria
Paradise Casino
Paragon Casino Resort
Pechanga Resort & Casino
Pinehurst Resort
Pit River Casino
Plateau Travel Plaza
PlayOn - Canastota
PlayOn - Oneida
PlayOn - Oneida Lake
PlayOn - Patrick Road
PlayOn - Sherrill
PlayOn - Upper Lennox
PlayOn - Verona
Point Place Casino
Potawatomi Carter Casino Hotel
Potawatomi Hotel & Casino
Prairie Band Casino & Resort
Prairie Band One Stop
Prairie Flower Casino
Prairie Knights Casino & Resort
Prairie Moon Casino
Prairie Sun Casino
Prairie Wind Bingo Dome
Prairie Wind Casino & Hotel
Prairie's Edge Casino Resort
Prairie's Edge Convenience Store
Quapaw Casino
Quechan Casino Resort
Quil Ceda Creek Casino
Quinault Beach Resort & Casino
Rain Rock Casino
Ranchman's 23
Red Earth Casino
Red Fox Casino
Red Hawk Casino
Redwood Hotel Casino
River Bend Casino and Hotel
River Rock Casino
River Spirit Casino Resort
RiverStar Casino
Riverwind Casino
Robinson Rancheria Resort & Casino
Rolling Hills Casino Resort
Rosebud Casino
Route 66 Casino Express
Route 66 Casino Hotel
Royal River Casino & Hotel
Ruffed Grouse Roadhouse
Running Creek Casino
Sac & Fox Casino
Sac & Fox Nation Casino
Saganing Eagles Landing Casino
Sage Hill Travel Center and Casino
SaltCreek Casino
San Manuel Casino
San Pablo Lytton Casino
Sandia Resort & Casino
Santa Ana Star Casino Hotel
Santa Claran Hotel Casino
Seminole Casino Brighton
Seminole Casino Coconut Creek
Seminole Casino Hotel Immokalee
Seminole Classic Casino
Seminole Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Hollywood
Seminole Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Tampa
Seminole Nation Casino I-40
Seminole Nation Casino Konawa
Seminole Nation Casino Wewoka
Seneca Allegany Resort & Casino
Seneca Buffalo Creek Casino
Seneca Gaming and Entertainment - Irving
Seneca Gaming and Entertainment - Oil Spring
Seneca Gaming and Entertainment - Salamanca
Seneca Niagara Resort & Casino
Seven Clans Casino Red Lake
Seven Clans Casino Thief River Falls
Seven Clans Casino Warroad
Seven Feathers Casino Resort
Sevenwinds Casino, Lodge & Conference Center
Sherwood Valley Casino
Shingobee on the Bay
Shoalwater Bay Casino
Shooting Star Casino - Bagley
Shooting Star Casino - Mahnomen
Shoshone Rose Casino & Hotel
Shoshone-Bannock Casino Hotel
Silver Reef Casino Resort
Silver Star Hotel & Casino
Silver Wolf Casino
Sitka Bingo
Sky City Casino Hotel
Sky City Travel Center
Sky Dancer Casino & Resort
Sky Ute Casino Resort
Snoqualmie Casino
Soaring Eagle Bingo and Slots
Soaring Eagle Casino & Resort
Soboba Casino Resort
SouthWind Casino - Braman
SouthWind Casino - Kanza
SouthWind Casino - Newkirk
Spirit Lake Casino & Resort
Spirit Mountain Casino
Spirit Mountain Casino
Spokane Tribe Casino
Sportsman's Bar
Spotlight 29 Casino
St. Croix Casino Danbury
St. Croix Casino Hertel
St. Croix Casino Turtle Lake
StoneWolf Casino
Strawberry Lake Store
Stump's Bar & Grill
Sugar Creek Casino
Sun'aq Tribe Bingo
Suquamish Clearwater Casino Resort
Swinomish Casino & Lodge
Sycuan Casino Resort
T&H Bingo
Table Mountain Casino
Tachi Palace Casino Resort
Talking Stick Resort
Taos Mountain Casino
TeePee Casino & Smoke Shop
Tesuque Casino
Texoma Casino
The Artesian Hotel Casino & Spa
The Black Hawk Casino
The Lake House at Sylvan Beach
The Mill Casino Hotel & RV Park
The Play Station 777
The Point Casino
The Skagit Casino Resort
The Stables Casino
The Thunderbird
Three Rivers Casino - Coos Bay
Three Rivers Casino Resort - Florence
Thunder Valley Casino Resort
Thunderbird Casino - Norman
Thunderbird Casino - Shawnee
Tishomingo Tobacco and Gaming
TJ's Quikstop
Tonkawa Gasino
Tonkawa Hotel & Casino
Tortoise Rock Casino
Trading Post Casino
Treasure Island Resort & Casino
Treasure Valley Casino & Hotel
Tribal Express Casino
Tulalip Bingo & Slots
Tulalip Resort Casino
Turning Stone Resort Casino
Turtle Creek Casino & Hotel
Turtle Creek Crossing Super Foods
Twin Arrows Navajo Casino Resort
Twin Pine Casino & Hotel
Ute Mountain Casino Hotel
Valley View Casino & Hotel
Viejas Bingo & Slot Parlor
Viejas Casino & Resort
Village Store
Wa She Shu Casino
Wanaaha Casino
Washita Casino
We-Ko-Pa Casino Resort
White Oak Casino
Wild Horse Casino & Hotel
Wild Rice Lounge
Wildhorse Resort and Casino
Wind Creek Atmore
Wind Creek Montgomery
Wind Creek Wetumpka
Wind River Hotel & Casino
WinnaVegas Casino Resort
Winnedumah Winn's Casino
Win-River Resort & Casino
WinStar World Casino and Resort
Yavapai Casino
Yellow Brick Road Casino
Yokut Gas
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